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Fake IDs & Fraudulent KYC: Can Crypto Find Salvation in Swarm-Powered Decentralisation?

Fake IDs & Fraudulent KYC: Can Crypto Find Salvation in Swarm-Powered Decentralisation?

The “OnlyFake” scandal, exposing the ease of bypassing KYC checks with forged IDs, throws a spotlight on the vulnerabilities of centralised verification systems in crypto. But fear not, for decentralisation and Swarm, a leading decentralised data storage and distribution technology, might hold the key to a more secure and empowering future.

Centralised KYC: A Honeycomb for Hackers and Fraudsters

Storing user data on centralised servers creates a honeypot for malicious actors. Deepfakes become potent weapons, exploiting weak verification processes to jeopardise financial security and erode trust. Opaque verifications further exacerbate the issue, leaving users with little control over their data and fostering privacy concerns.

Swarm & Decentralization: Empowering Users, Fortifying Security

Decentralisation offers a paradigm shift. By storing user data on blockchains like Swarm, a distributed and tamper-proof ledger, we eliminate central points of attack. Users regain control through self-sovereign identities, fostering trust and transparency. But how do we verify attributes without exposing sensitive information?

Zero-Knowledge Proofs: Verifying Without Revealing

Zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) act as cryptographic shields. They allow individuals to prove they possess certain characteristics (e.g., being above 18) without revealing any underlying data. This guarantees privacy while maintaining the integrity of verification.

A Glimpse into the Future: Secure & Empowering Crypto Identity Management with Swarm

Imagine a world where:

  • Swarm-powered decentralised storage eliminates honeypots, making data breaches a distant memory.
  • ZKPs render deep fakes useless by focusing on attribute verification, not identities.
  • Users hold the reins of their data, fostering trust and transparency within the ecosystem.

Here’s how Swarm and ZKPs could work together:

  1. Store ID data on Swarm: Users upload their encrypted ID documents to the decentralised Swarm network, ensuring data privacy and distribution across multiple nodes.
  2. Zero-knowledge verification: When required, users leverage ZKPs to prove they possess necessary attributes (e.g., age) without revealing the entire document.
  3. Empowered control: Users maintain complete control over their data, deciding who can access specific attributes and revoking access as needed.

The “OnlyFake” incident serves as a stark reminder of the need for change. By embracing Swarm-powered decentralisation and ZKPs, we can create a crypto space where security, privacy, and user empowerment reign supreme.

The question now lies with you: Are you ready to join the movement towards a more secure and empowering crypto future?

Understanding Erasure Coding in Distributed Systems: A Guide to Swarm’s Innovative Approach

Understanding Erasure Coding in Distributed Systems: A Guide to Swarm’s Innovative Approach

Introduction to Data Storage in Distributed Systems

In our increasingly digital world, the importance of effective and secure data storage cannot be overstated. Distributed systems, such as cloud storage networks, represent a significant advancement in this area. These systems distribute data across multiple locations, ensuring accessibility and resilience against failures or data losses. However, this distributed nature also introduces unique challenges in terms of data storage and retrieval. For instance, ensuring data integrity and availability across different nodes in a network becomes more complex. Understanding these challenges is crucial for appreciating the innovative solutions like Swarm’s erasure coding, which are designed to address these specific issues.

Overview of Erasure Coding in Swarm

Imagine you have a jigsaw puzzle, and even if a few pieces are missing, you’re still able to recognise the picture. This analogy aptly describes the principle behind erasure coding, a method used for protecting data in distributed systems like Swarm. In Swarm’s context, erasure coding is not just a safety net for missing data; it’s a strategic approach to ensure data is both secure and optimally stored. This coding technique involves dividing data into chunks, then adding additional ‘parity’ chunks. These extra chunks allow the system to reconstruct the original data even if some chunks are lost or corrupted, much like how you can still make out a picture with a few missing puzzle pieces.

Comparison with Traditional Methods

Traditional data storage methods often rely on redundancy—storing multiple copies of data across different locations. While this approach is straightforward, it’s not the most efficient, especially in terms of storage space and resources. In contrast, erasure coding, as used in systems like Swarm, presents a more sophisticated solution. It strikes an optimal balance between data availability and storage efficiency. By storing additional parity information rather than complete data copies, erasure coding provides a reliable means of data recovery with less overall storage requirement. This efficiency makes it particularly suitable for distributed systems, where resource optimization is key.

Deep Dive into Swarm’s Erasure Coding

Swarm’s implementation of erasure coding through Reed-Solomon coding is a masterclass in data protection. This method, at its core, involves breaking down data into manageable chunks, followed by the creation of additional parity chunks. These extra chunks act as a safety mechanism, allowing for the reconstruction of the original data, should any part be lost or corrupted. It’s a method that mirrors the intricacies of a well-crafted puzzle, where each piece, even if minor, plays a crucial role in the bigger picture. This intricate process not only ensures data integrity but also bolsters the system’s ability to recover from unforeseen data losses.

Real-World Applications in Swarm

In practical scenarios, Swarm’s use of erasure coding is a game-changer, especially in maintaining data integrity and availability. In real-world applications, such as cloud storage services, this translates to an unparalleled reliability for users. Whether it’s safeguarding critical business documents or preserving cherished family photos, Swarm’s system ensures that users’ data remains intact and retrievable, even in the face of partial data losses. This level of reliability and security is what makes Swarm stand out in the crowded field of data storage solutions.

Benefits Specific to Swarm’s Approach

Swarm’s unique approach to erasure coding brings with it a suite of advantages. The enhanced data security that comes from this method is the most prominent, providing a robust shield against data loss. Moreover, the system’s efficiency in data storage is noteworthy; by reducing the need for redundant data copies, it significantly cuts down on storage requirements. This efficiency is not just about saving space – it’s also about optimising resources and reducing costs, making it a highly cost-effective solution for large-scale data storage needs.

Technical Challenges and Solutions

The implementation of erasure coding in Swarm, while beneficial, is not without its complexities. Managing the intricate balance between data accessibility, integrity, and storage efficiency presents a significant challenge. However, Swarm’s sophisticated coding techniques and network management strategies have been meticulously designed to address these issues. By continually refining these strategies, Swarm ensures a seamless and reliable user experience, maintaining its status as a leader in distributed data storage.


Erasure coding in distributed systems like Swarm marks a significant milestone in digital data storage and protection. In an era where data’s value is ever-growing, the importance of technologies like erasure coding cannot be understated – they are essential for the reliability and security of our digital world.

Zero-Knowledge Rollups and Ethereum Scalability: The Future of Interoperability

Zero-Knowledge Rollups and Ethereum Scalability: The Future of Interoperability

In recent weeks, the world of blockchain technology has witnessed a surge in the launch of projects centered around zero-knowledge proofs. Notable offerings include Polygon’s zkEVM, Matter Lab’s zkSync Era on the Ethereum mainnet, and ConsenSys’ Linea zkEVM on the testnet. These projects share a common goal: to enhance Ethereum’s scalability by harnessing the power of zero-knowledge proofs. In this article, we delve into this exciting development and explore the potential future of interoperability in the realm of zero-knowledge rollups.

Zero-Knowledge Proofs: The Foundation

Zero-knowledge proofs are cryptographic techniques that allow one party to prove they possess specific knowledge without revealing the actual knowledge itself. In the context of blockchain technology, these proofs enable Ethereum to scale efficiently. Rollups, a key concept in this context, offload the computation for thousands of transactions from the main Ethereum blockchain, providing a tiny cryptographic proof that validates the correct execution of these transactions.

Competing Rollups or Collaborative Harmony?

As these zero-knowledge rollup projects gain momentum, a pressing question arises: Is it a winner-takes-all competition among them, or can they coexist harmoniously, working together seamlessly? Anthony Rose, head of engineering for zkSync, envisions a future where multiple rollups can collaborate, making it irrelevant for users to choose a specific one. In his view, the rollups will become an integral part of the blockchain infrastructure, much like how users of platforms like Snapchat or Facebook don’t need to understand the technical intricacies of the internet.

Interoperability: The Bridge to the Future

Transitioning from a landscape of competing rollups to an ecosystem of interoperable and composable zero-knowledge solutions is a significant challenge. Fortunately, the community is already contemplating this transition, and all the zero-knowledge projects mentioned are working on plans to achieve interoperability to varying degrees. The extent of this interoperability, however, largely depends on the development of standards and protocols.

Ethereum Scalability: Current Status

Currently, Ethereum’s scalability faces practical limitations due to data availability on the network. Despite various solutions claiming theoretical scalability figures in the tens of thousands of transactions per second (TPS), the reality is different. Ethereum and its scaling solutions collectively process around 25 transactions per second, with Ethereum itself averaging about 12 TPS over the past month. Arbitrum One, Optimism, and zkSync offer TPS in the range of 1.6 to 7.2.

The Road to Interoperability

Interoperability between rollups is crucial to prevent users from being confined to isolated ecosystems. For instance, Optimistic Rollup users experience a one-week waiting period for fund withdrawals, limiting their ability to interact with other ecosystems. Achieving interoperability is technically possible, but its practical implementation depends on factors such as the financial viability of frequently putting proofs on Ethereum, which currently results in delays of 10 to 20 minutes between transactions.

Interoperability vs. Composability

It’s important to distinguish between “interoperability” and “composability.” While these terms are often used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings. Interoperability involves the seamless movement of funds between different layer-2 solutions. Composability takes it a step further, enabling transactions that involve operations across multiple rollups. Achieving composability may require the development of new standards and protocols.

The Role of MetaMask Snaps

MetaMask, a popular browser wallet, offers another avenue for achieving interoperability. They are developing Snaps, which are crowdsourced wallet extensions that extend MetaMask’s capabilities. Snaps could facilitate communication between different ZK-rollups, allowing them to interact with each other effectively.

Composability: The Future Frontier

Composability entails transactions involving operations on different rollups in a more real-time manner. This requires the development of new standards and protocols, and the sooner this happens, the better the user experience will be. With synchronous composability, transactions can be seamlessly executed across different off-chain systems, offering users an optimal liquidity experience.

The Potential of Optimism’s Superchain

Optimism introduces the concept of a “Superchain” that aims to integrate various layer-2 solutions into a single interoperable and composable system. Shared sequencing and the separation of proving and execution are key aspects of this concept, allowing cross-chain operations like flash loans to occur efficiently.

Direct Connection between ZK-Rollups

Some experts believe that ZK-rollups can connect directly with each other, as long as they can verify each other’s proofs. Smart contracts can be written to interpret incompatible proofs used by different rollups, enabling direct communication. This approach simplifies interoperability, especially when rollups share a common codebase.

Towards an Interoperable and Composable Future

In summary, the future of Ethereum scalability is expected to revolve around interoperability and composability among various zero-knowledge rollup solutions. These advancements will be driven by the development of standards, protocols, and collaborative efforts among the blockchain community. As these systems mature, users and developers alike will benefit from a more interconnected and efficient Ethereum ecosystem.

Understanding Decentralised Data Storage Costs on Ethereum Swarm

Understanding Decentralised Data Storage Costs on Ethereum Swarm

In the dynamic world of blockchain technology, Ethereum Swarm stands out as a cornerstone for decentralized data storage and communication. It’s crucial for users and developers in the Ethereum ecosystem to understand the intricacies of storage costs on this platform. This article delves deeper into the various factors affecting these costs, including network size, data size, and the critical role of BZZ tokens in pricing.

What is Ethereum Swarm

Ethereum Swarm is not just a decentralized storage system; it’s an extension of Ethereum‘s vision to build a comprehensive, decentralized internet. It enables data to be stored and distributed across a network of nodes, reducing reliance on centralized servers and mitigating risks like data loss or censorship. Swarm is designed to seamlessly store Ethereum’s dApp data, smart contracts, and user data, ensuring high availability and resistance to outages.

Factors Influencing Storage Costs

Network Size: The cost of data storage on Swarm is significantly influenced by the network’s size. A larger network means more nodes are available to store data, leading to increased redundancy and potentially lower costs due to economies of scale. In contrast, a smaller network might have higher costs due to increased demand for the limited storage space available.

Data Size: The volume of data being stored directly impacts the cost. Larger files require more space and network resources, naturally incurring higher costs. Smaller data sets, however, are less resource-intensive, making them more economical to store.

The Role of BZZ Tokens

BZZ tokens, Swarm’s native cryptocurrency, are fundamental to its operational model. These tokens facilitate transactions within the Swarm network, serving as a form of payment for storage services. Users pay for storage in BZZ, while node operators earn BZZ by providing storage space. This creates a decentralized market for storage, where prices are governed by supply and demand.

The Pricing Mechanism

Swarm’s pricing model is dynamic, adjusting to real-time conditions in the network. Storage costs are calculated based on several factors, including the amount of data, network congestion, and the availability of nodes. This ensures that the pricing is fair, competitive, and reflective of the network’s current state.

Swarm’s Postage Stamps Mechanism

An integral part of understanding data storage in Swarm is its unique “postage stamp” system. This mechanism is crucial for the functioning of the Swarm network and influences storage costs:

    • Concept of Postage Stamps: In Swarm, users must purchase “postage stamps” to upload and store data. These stamps are essentially proof of payment attached to the data being stored, ensuring that the data remains in the network for a predetermined amount of time.

    • Functioning: When a user wants to store data, they buy a postage stamp using BZZ tokens. The price of the stamp depends on the size of the data and the desired storage duration. The data with a valid postage stamp is then accepted and stored by the nodes in the network.

    • Impact on Storage Costs: The cost of postage stamps adds an additional layer to the overall storage costs on Swarm. It’s a pay-as-you-go model where the more data you store and the longer you want it stored, the more postage stamps you need to purchase.

Understanding Swarm’s Cost Per Gigabyte Per Year

Calculating the cost of storing data, such as a gigabyte for a year on Ethereum Swarm, requires an understanding of several dynamic factors:

    • Market Value of BZZ: Since storage costs are paid in BZZ tokens, the market value of BZZ significantly impacts the cost. As the value fluctuates, so does the cost of storage.

    • Network Demand and Supply: Costs vary depending on the balance between available storage space and the demand for storage. Higher demand or limited supply can drive up costs.

    • Data Redundancy and Replication: Swarm ensures data redundancy for reliability, which might affect the cost as more copies of the data are stored across different nodes.

Given these variables, providing an exact figure for the cost per gigabyte per year can be challenging. However, for illustrative purposes, let’s assume a scenario:

Assume that 1 BZZ equals X USD, – you can check the up to date prices here – and the current rate for storing 1 GB of data for a month is Y BZZ – check the up to date Swarm storage price here. Therefore, the cost to store 1 GB of data for a year would be (Y * 12) * X USD. At the time of writing, based on this calculation you’d pay $1.561 for storing one GB of data for a year on Swarm. It’s important to regularly check the latest rates and BZZ value for the most accurate cost estimation.

Comparisons with Other Storage Solutions

When compared to other decentralized storage systems like IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) and Filecoin, Swarm offers a distinct approach. While IPFS focuses on peer-to-peer file sharing and content addressing, Swarm provides more integrated storage solutions specifically designed for the Ethereum ecosystem. Filecoin, with its unique proof-of-storage model, represents another alternative, highlighting the diversity in decentralized storage solutions.

Future Outlook and Scalability

The future of Swarm is closely tied to the broader development of the Ethereum ecosystem. As Ethereum evolves, so too will Swarm, potentially leading to more efficient storage solutions and cost reductions. Key to this evolution will be improvements in scalability and network efficiency, which are expected to impact storage costs positively.


Grasping the nuances of storage costs on Ethereum Swarm is vital for anyone engaged in the Ethereum ecosystem. The cost is influenced by factors like network size, data volume, and the economic model governing BZZ tokens. As Swarm continues to grow and evolve, staying informed about these developments is crucial for developers and users alike.

Worldcoin’s Integration with Major Platforms: A Leap Towards Mass Adoption and Decentralised Data

Worldcoin’s Integration with Major Platforms: A Leap Towards Mass Adoption and Decentralised Data

In an unprecedented move marking a milestone towards mass adoption of decentralised technologies, Worldcoin has unveiled its latest version of the World ID feature, dubbed “World ID 2.0”. This groundbreaking update, as announced on Dec. 12, has integrated with major platforms including Shopify, Mercado Libre, Reddit, Telegram, and notably, Minecraft, significantly broadening its reach and utility.

Embracing Decentralised Identity Verification

World ID 2.0 is more than just an authentication tool; it’s a harbinger of a new era in digital identity verification. By enabling users on platforms like Shopify and Mercado Libre to prove their humanness without compromising personal data, Worldcoin is setting a new standard in user privacy and data security. This aligns perfectly with our ethos, where we are committed to building custom-made dApps on top of Ethereum Swarm – a testament to the power and potential of decentralised data layers.

The Impact of Zero-Knowledge Proofs

Central to Worldcoin’s approach is the implementation of zero-knowledge proofs – a technology that allows one party to prove to another that a statement is true, without revealing any information beyond the validity of the statement itself. This is crucial for maintaining privacy and security in decentralised systems. In the context of World ID 2.0, it means that users can verify their identity without exposing their biometric data, addressing one of the most significant concerns in the digital world today.

Reducing Fraud and Enhancing User Experience with World ID 2.0

The integration of World ID 2.0 with these platforms is a significant step towards reducing the losses that retailers face from return fraud, bots, and coupon stacking – estimated at a staggering $100 billion a year. For instance, Shopify stores can now create coupons and specify the level of humanness required for redemption, ranging from device-verified to Orb-verified levels. This not only enhances security but also improves the overall user experience by streamlining authentication processes.

Paving the Way for the Future

As a company at the forefront of decentralised application development, Solar Punk recognizes the monumental significance of such integrations. They represent a shift towards a future where decentralised data is as pivotal as Bitcoin and Ethereum have been. The adoption of World ID 2.0 by major platforms like Minecraft, which has a vast and diverse user base, is a testament to the scalability and versatility of these technologies.


The integration of World ID 2.0 with major platforms marks a significant stride towards the future of decentralised data and digital identity verification. We envision a world where blockchain technology is seamlessly integrated into everyday life, enhancing security, privacy, and user experience. We are witnessing a pivotal moment in the journey towards a decentralised, secure, and user-centric digital world.

Mastering Digital Sovereignty: Unlocking the Power of Decentralised Data

Mastering Digital Sovereignty: Unlocking the Power of Decentralised Data

A Paradigm Shift in the Digital World

In the rapidly evolving landscape of blockchain technology, a new narrative is unfolding – one where decentralised data stands as a cornerstone, akin to the groundbreaking emergence of Bitcoin and Ethereum. Today, our digital existence, encapsulated in browser history and sensitive information, is often exploited. This exploitation, largely unseen, leads to significant and sometimes alarming consequences.

Reclaiming Control: The Essence of Digital Sovereignty

The rise of digital interactions has paradoxically led to a loss of control over our digital identities. This trend highlights the urgent need for heightened awareness and protection of our online data. High-profile data breaches, like MGM’s and recent cybersecurity incidents involving major crypto platforms, have laid bare the vulnerabilities inherent in centralised systems.

Decentralisation vs. Digital Sovereignty: Understanding the Difference

While these terms are often used interchangeably, they encapsulate different aspects of online autonomy. Digital sovereignty is about controlling and owning your online identity, leveraging tools that ensure self-governance of personal data. Decentralisation, on the other hand, is the architectural distribution of control, aimed at reducing dependency on single entities and creating a more resilient digital ecosystem.

The Role of Decentralised Data in Empowering Users

Decentralised data is not just about the technical redistribution of control; it’s about crafting a digital landscape where users can assert their sovereignty. By adopting decentralised structures, like those found in blockchain technology, users gain more autonomy over their digital interactions, ensuring that their data remains secure, private, and within their control.

Embrace the Digital Sovereignty Movement

As we step into this new era, the call to embrace digital sovereignty grows louder. It’s no longer sufficient to be passive participants in the digital realm. Instead, we must actively engage with technologies that empower us, ensuring that our digital trails are not exploited but protected. Decentralised data offers a path to this future, one where each individual’s digital identity is safeguarded and respected.

The Journey Toward a Sovereign Digital Identity: Embracing Ethereum Swarm with Solar Punk’s Expertise

As we journey toward a future underpinned by digital sovereignty, the role of decentralised data becomes increasingly crucial. Ethereum Swarm emerges as a pivotal technology in this landscape, offering a robust platform for creating fully decentralised applications. This technology not only ensures data security and privacy but also aligns with the ethos of a decentralised, user-empowered digital world.

For those looking to harness the full potential of decentralised data in their dApp development, Solar Punk is here to guide and assist. Our expertise in building on Ethereum Swarm enables us to help you create dApps that are not just technologically advanced but also deeply committed to the principles of digital sovereignty and user autonomy.

We encourage you to explore the possibilities that Ethereum Swarm offers. If you’re ready to embark on this path and want your project to stand at the forefront of digital innovation, reach out to us here. Together, we can build a future where digital ownership and creativity are fully harnessed through the power of decentralised data.

A Beginner’s Guide to NFT dApp Creation and Launching: Best Practices

A Beginner’s Guide to NFT dApp Creation and Launching: Best Practices

In the ever-evolving landscape of blockchain technology, two phenomena stand out for their transformative potential: Non-fungible Tokens (NFTs) and Decentralised Applications (dApps). While they serve distinct purposes, their intersection creates a synergy that is revolutionising the way we think about digital ownership, creative monetisation, and decentralised finance.

The Role of NFTs in dApps

NFTs in dApps are redefining digital interactions. They’re not just about tokenizing digital art or collectibles; they’re also creating new paradigms in gaming, virtual real estate, and even in DeFi (Decentralised Finance). By representing unique digital and real-world assets, NFTs within dApps facilitate true ownership, transferability, and programmable features.

The Evolving Landscape of NFT dApps

NFT dApps are blockchain-based platforms enabling the creation, trading, and ownership of unique digital assets. This evolution is particularly visible in sectors like digital art, where platforms like OpenSea and Rarible have become hubs for artists to tokenize and sell their works as NFTs. In gaming, dApps like Decentraland utilise NFTs for in-game assets, fostering a thriving digital economy.

Creating and Launching an NFT dApp: A Step-by-Step Guide

  • Conceptualisation: Begin by defining the NFT dApp’s purpose, target audience, and unique features.
  • Blockchain Selection: Ethereum remains a popular choice for its robust support of NFT standards like ERC-721 and ERC-1155, although alternatives like BNB Smart Chain are also viable based on specific project needs.
  • Development Environment: Set up your environment with necessary tools for smart contract development and testing.
  • Smart Contract Development: Craft contracts to manage the NFTs’ lifecycle – minting, trading, and ownership transfer.
  • Wallet Integration: Ensure users can securely manage their NFTs by integrating wallets like MetaMask or Trust Wallet.
  • Minting Functionality: Develop user-friendly interfaces for creators to tokenize their assets.
  • Unique and Decentralised Data Storage: Store your NFT data on a decentralised platform like Ethereum Swarm. This not only ensures true decentralisation of your NFTs but also enhances their security and accessibility.
  • Marketplace Features: If your dApp includes trading functionalities, implement user-friendly buying, selling, and trading features.
  • Testing and Deployment: Rigorously test your dApp for any vulnerabilities and deploy it to your chosen blockchain.
  • Launch and Marketing: Craft a compelling narrative for your dApp, engage with influential community members, and utilise diverse platforms for promotion.
  • Continual Development and Community Engagement: After launch, keep evolving the dApp based on user feedback and market trends to stay relevant and useful.

Solar Punk: Crafting the Future with Ethereum Swarm

At Solar Punk, our journey into the realm of NFT dApps is fuelled by our commitment to innovation and decentralisation. Building on Ethereum Swarm, we offer a unique proposition – a platform that not only supports decentralised applications but also enhances their efficiency, scalability, and security through decentralised data storage.

Our NFT dApps stand out for their resilience against network congestion and their ability to offer a seamless user experience, even amidst the growing complexity of blockchain transactions. By embracing Ethereum Swarm, Solar Punk is not just participating in the blockchain revolution; we are actively shaping its course, ensuring our NFT dApps are not just technologically superior but also aligned with the ethos of decentralised, user-centric innovation.

Closing Thoughts

As we continue to innovate and explore the vast potential of NFT dApps, we invite you to join us on this exciting journey. The future of digital ownership and creativity is here, and at Solar Punk, we are at the forefront, crafting solutions that redefine the digital landscape. If you’re interested in learning how we can help your project stand out with unique and innovative dApps, reach out to us here. Let’s build the future together.