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Fake IDs & Fraudulent KYC: Can Crypto Find Salvation in Swarm-Powered Decentralisation?

Fake IDs & Fraudulent KYC: Can Crypto Find Salvation in Swarm-Powered Decentralisation?

The “OnlyFake” scandal, exposing the ease of bypassing KYC checks with forged IDs, throws a spotlight on the vulnerabilities of centralised verification systems in crypto. But fear not, for decentralisation and Swarm, a leading decentralised data storage and distribution technology, might hold the key to a more secure and empowering future.

Centralised KYC: A Honeycomb for Hackers and Fraudsters

Storing user data on centralised servers creates a honeypot for malicious actors. Deepfakes become potent weapons, exploiting weak verification processes to jeopardise financial security and erode trust. Opaque verifications further exacerbate the issue, leaving users with little control over their data and fostering privacy concerns.

Swarm & Decentralization: Empowering Users, Fortifying Security

Decentralisation offers a paradigm shift. By storing user data on blockchains like Swarm, a distributed and tamper-proof ledger, we eliminate central points of attack. Users regain control through self-sovereign identities, fostering trust and transparency. But how do we verify attributes without exposing sensitive information?

Zero-Knowledge Proofs: Verifying Without Revealing

Zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) act as cryptographic shields. They allow individuals to prove they possess certain characteristics (e.g., being above 18) without revealing any underlying data. This guarantees privacy while maintaining the integrity of verification.

A Glimpse into the Future: Secure & Empowering Crypto Identity Management with Swarm

Imagine a world where:

  • Swarm-powered decentralised storage eliminates honeypots, making data breaches a distant memory.
  • ZKPs render deep fakes useless by focusing on attribute verification, not identities.
  • Users hold the reins of their data, fostering trust and transparency within the ecosystem.

Here’s how Swarm and ZKPs could work together:

  1. Store ID data on Swarm: Users upload their encrypted ID documents to the decentralised Swarm network, ensuring data privacy and distribution across multiple nodes.
  2. Zero-knowledge verification: When required, users leverage ZKPs to prove they possess necessary attributes (e.g., age) without revealing the entire document.
  3. Empowered control: Users maintain complete control over their data, deciding who can access specific attributes and revoking access as needed.

The “OnlyFake” incident serves as a stark reminder of the need for change. By embracing Swarm-powered decentralisation and ZKPs, we can create a crypto space where security, privacy, and user empowerment reign supreme.

The question now lies with you: Are you ready to join the movement towards a more secure and empowering crypto future?

Zero-Knowledge Rollups and Ethereum Scalability: The Future of Interoperability

Zero-Knowledge Rollups and Ethereum Scalability: The Future of Interoperability

In recent weeks, the world of blockchain technology has witnessed a surge in the launch of projects centered around zero-knowledge proofs. Notable offerings include Polygon’s zkEVM, Matter Lab’s zkSync Era on the Ethereum mainnet, and ConsenSys’ Linea zkEVM on the testnet. These projects share a common goal: to enhance Ethereum’s scalability by harnessing the power of zero-knowledge proofs. In this article, we delve into this exciting development and explore the potential future of interoperability in the realm of zero-knowledge rollups.

Zero-Knowledge Proofs: The Foundation

Zero-knowledge proofs are cryptographic techniques that allow one party to prove they possess specific knowledge without revealing the actual knowledge itself. In the context of blockchain technology, these proofs enable Ethereum to scale efficiently. Rollups, a key concept in this context, offload the computation for thousands of transactions from the main Ethereum blockchain, providing a tiny cryptographic proof that validates the correct execution of these transactions.

Competing Rollups or Collaborative Harmony?

As these zero-knowledge rollup projects gain momentum, a pressing question arises: Is it a winner-takes-all competition among them, or can they coexist harmoniously, working together seamlessly? Anthony Rose, head of engineering for zkSync, envisions a future where multiple rollups can collaborate, making it irrelevant for users to choose a specific one. In his view, the rollups will become an integral part of the blockchain infrastructure, much like how users of platforms like Snapchat or Facebook don’t need to understand the technical intricacies of the internet.

Interoperability: The Bridge to the Future

Transitioning from a landscape of competing rollups to an ecosystem of interoperable and composable zero-knowledge solutions is a significant challenge. Fortunately, the community is already contemplating this transition, and all the zero-knowledge projects mentioned are working on plans to achieve interoperability to varying degrees. The extent of this interoperability, however, largely depends on the development of standards and protocols.

Ethereum Scalability: Current Status

Currently, Ethereum’s scalability faces practical limitations due to data availability on the network. Despite various solutions claiming theoretical scalability figures in the tens of thousands of transactions per second (TPS), the reality is different. Ethereum and its scaling solutions collectively process around 25 transactions per second, with Ethereum itself averaging about 12 TPS over the past month. Arbitrum One, Optimism, and zkSync offer TPS in the range of 1.6 to 7.2.

The Road to Interoperability

Interoperability between rollups is crucial to prevent users from being confined to isolated ecosystems. For instance, Optimistic Rollup users experience a one-week waiting period for fund withdrawals, limiting their ability to interact with other ecosystems. Achieving interoperability is technically possible, but its practical implementation depends on factors such as the financial viability of frequently putting proofs on Ethereum, which currently results in delays of 10 to 20 minutes between transactions.

Interoperability vs. Composability

It’s important to distinguish between “interoperability” and “composability.” While these terms are often used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings. Interoperability involves the seamless movement of funds between different layer-2 solutions. Composability takes it a step further, enabling transactions that involve operations across multiple rollups. Achieving composability may require the development of new standards and protocols.

The Role of MetaMask Snaps

MetaMask, a popular browser wallet, offers another avenue for achieving interoperability. They are developing Snaps, which are crowdsourced wallet extensions that extend MetaMask’s capabilities. Snaps could facilitate communication between different ZK-rollups, allowing them to interact with each other effectively.

Composability: The Future Frontier

Composability entails transactions involving operations on different rollups in a more real-time manner. This requires the development of new standards and protocols, and the sooner this happens, the better the user experience will be. With synchronous composability, transactions can be seamlessly executed across different off-chain systems, offering users an optimal liquidity experience.

The Potential of Optimism’s Superchain

Optimism introduces the concept of a “Superchain” that aims to integrate various layer-2 solutions into a single interoperable and composable system. Shared sequencing and the separation of proving and execution are key aspects of this concept, allowing cross-chain operations like flash loans to occur efficiently.

Direct Connection between ZK-Rollups

Some experts believe that ZK-rollups can connect directly with each other, as long as they can verify each other’s proofs. Smart contracts can be written to interpret incompatible proofs used by different rollups, enabling direct communication. This approach simplifies interoperability, especially when rollups share a common codebase.

Towards an Interoperable and Composable Future

In summary, the future of Ethereum scalability is expected to revolve around interoperability and composability among various zero-knowledge rollup solutions. These advancements will be driven by the development of standards, protocols, and collaborative efforts among the blockchain community. As these systems mature, users and developers alike will benefit from a more interconnected and efficient Ethereum ecosystem.

Worldcoin’s Integration with Major Platforms: A Leap Towards Mass Adoption and Decentralised Data

Worldcoin’s Integration with Major Platforms: A Leap Towards Mass Adoption and Decentralised Data

In an unprecedented move marking a milestone towards mass adoption of decentralised technologies, Worldcoin has unveiled its latest version of the World ID feature, dubbed “World ID 2.0”. This groundbreaking update, as announced on Dec. 12, has integrated with major platforms including Shopify, Mercado Libre, Reddit, Telegram, and notably, Minecraft, significantly broadening its reach and utility.

Embracing Decentralised Identity Verification

World ID 2.0 is more than just an authentication tool; it’s a harbinger of a new era in digital identity verification. By enabling users on platforms like Shopify and Mercado Libre to prove their humanness without compromising personal data, Worldcoin is setting a new standard in user privacy and data security. This aligns perfectly with our ethos, where we are committed to building custom-made dApps on top of Ethereum Swarm – a testament to the power and potential of decentralised data layers.

The Impact of Zero-Knowledge Proofs

Central to Worldcoin’s approach is the implementation of zero-knowledge proofs – a technology that allows one party to prove to another that a statement is true, without revealing any information beyond the validity of the statement itself. This is crucial for maintaining privacy and security in decentralised systems. In the context of World ID 2.0, it means that users can verify their identity without exposing their biometric data, addressing one of the most significant concerns in the digital world today.

Reducing Fraud and Enhancing User Experience with World ID 2.0

The integration of World ID 2.0 with these platforms is a significant step towards reducing the losses that retailers face from return fraud, bots, and coupon stacking – estimated at a staggering $100 billion a year. For instance, Shopify stores can now create coupons and specify the level of humanness required for redemption, ranging from device-verified to Orb-verified levels. This not only enhances security but also improves the overall user experience by streamlining authentication processes.

Paving the Way for the Future

As a company at the forefront of decentralised application development, Solar Punk recognizes the monumental significance of such integrations. They represent a shift towards a future where decentralised data is as pivotal as Bitcoin and Ethereum have been. The adoption of World ID 2.0 by major platforms like Minecraft, which has a vast and diverse user base, is a testament to the scalability and versatility of these technologies.


The integration of World ID 2.0 with major platforms marks a significant stride towards the future of decentralised data and digital identity verification. We envision a world where blockchain technology is seamlessly integrated into everyday life, enhancing security, privacy, and user experience. We are witnessing a pivotal moment in the journey towards a decentralised, secure, and user-centric digital world.